Mango is popularly known as the King of fruit. It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Major species are known as Mangifera indica. Mainly there are two types: Indian type and Indochinese type.
This is a mono embryonic type. That means it contains only one embryo.
This is a polyembryonic type. That means it contains more than one embryo per seed.
Diseases of Mango
1. Stem End Rot
Stem end rot is the major post-harvest disease. Fruit pericarp becomes darken near the base of pedicels. The affected area enlarges to form a circular black patch which extends under a humid atmosphere and pulp become brown and softer. The rot produces dark streaking of the water-conducting tissues in fruit. Carefully handle fruits and prevent mechanical injuries. Avoid harvesting of premature fruits. Hot-water treatment. (Keep mango in 50-520C for 3-5 min soon after harvesting.)
Anthracnose affects leaves, flower panicles,s and all stages of fruit. Tender shoot and foliage are easily affected and ultimately cause “die back” of young branches. Anthracnose produces leaf spot, blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight, and fruit rot symptoms. Prune excess branches. Use fungicide: before and after flowering. (Eg: Chlorocaloni, Maneb). Hot-water treatment. ( Keep mango in 50-520C for 3-5 min soon after harvesting.)
Pests of Mango
1. Fruit Fly (Bactocera dorsalis)
Larvae feed on fruit flesh – become unsuitable for consumption. After hatching larvae feeds on the pulp which appears normal from outside. Remove all dropped fruits and destroy them. Use protein baits. Use methyl eugenol traps. Cover the fruit.
2. Mango Leafhopper
Mango Hopper nymphs and adults and suck the cell sap from the tender shoots during the rainy season. Infested leaves of mango shrivel, turn brown and ultimately fall down. Mango hoppers secrete honeydew like substance which encourages the growth of black sooty mold which severely affects the photosynthetic activity of leaves. Affect the marketable quality of seedlings in the nursery.
3. Leaf-Cutting Weevil
Female lays eggs under the rind of ripening fruits. Newly emerged grubs bore through the pulp, feed on the seed coat, and later cause damage to cotyledons. Pupation takes place inside the seed. The pulp is discoloured around the affected portion. The pulp adjacent to the affected stone is seen discoloured when the fruit is cut open. These are control methods of Leaf-cutting weevil; Collect and destruct infected and fallen fruits, use chemicals, and use traps.